Almost 70% of the Earth’s area is covered by water sources such as oceans, seas, lakes, ponds, wells, etc. owing to this, water pollution is considered as one of the most dangerous pollutions and has been a matter of high concern for people from all across the world.
Water pollution refers to addition is any kind of waste material into the water that makes it contaminated and unfit for use by living beings, be it we human beings, plants or animals. Because water forms an important constituent of our body and sustains our living to a large extent, keeping this resource is extremely essential for healthy living.
Water pollution usually occurs when a water body is badly affected by any kind of human activity that adds waste materials in large amounts to the water body. When such water becomes contaminated and unfit for use by living organisms, it is called polluted. The substances that cause water pollution are of two kinds: non-point sources of pollution and point sources of pollution. The point sources of water pollution are the ones that affect the purity of water when they are directly added to a water body. Best example of point sources of water pollution can be oil spills that form a layer on the top of a water body and cause contamination of water bodies on a large scale.
On the other hand, non-point sources of water pollution refer to pollutants that are cause pollution of water through indirect means. Best example of this kind of water pollutants is fertilizers and pesticides that are used on agricultural land and crops and in turn, run into streams, lakes and rivers. Such pollutants indirectly result in contaminating the water body and making the respective water unfit for use by living organisms.
Water pollution not only affects the living of humans but also leaves an adverse affect on the life of aquatic animals. No wonder the increase and the alarming rate at which our aquatic life is depleting owes its cause to the high degree of water pollution.
Water pollution occurs because of a variety of factors. Fertilizers, pesticides and sewage contain poisonous nutrients such as phosphates and nitrates that affect the purity of water and contaminate it. When added in excess amounts, such pollutants lead to sudden death of aquatic life comprising water plants and animals. These pollutants also block waterways and form a thick layer on the top of water bodies, which cuts the supply of oxygen to living animals and plants under the water.
In addition to this, the other important pollutants include washed-off plowed fields, withered leaves and branches, etc. also cause water pollution to a great extent. The liquid and solid waste and poisonous substances from factories and industries also run into nearby water bodies and cause mass pollution of the water. All these along with many other factors affect the quality of water in reservoirs and make it unfit for consumption.
Because our life and sustenance on Earth is incomplete without water, it is the duty of every individual to make efforts in keeping the water in the reservoirs clean and free from any kind of contamination.