Surgery or "hand work" is a medical specialty done with manual and instrumental methods on a patient to treat an injury or some disease. Major Surgery of the Human Body helps improve bodily function or appearance. Neurosurgery or brain surgery is focused on treating brain diseases and disorders. Brain surgery comprises the surgical, nonsurgical and stereotactic radiosurgical treatment of both adults and pediatric patients.
The Procedure of Surgery is carried on by the physician, dentist or veterinarian. A surgery treats many diseases or conditions like Physical trauma like wounds, Anatomical Abnormalities, Disorders of function, Inflammation, Ischaemia and infarction, Metabolic disorders, Neoplasia and other abnormalities of tissue growth. Surgeries are also applicable in case of Organ hypertrophy or cancers, Deformity, heavy scarring, brain damage and nerve damage. Brain surgery is generally done to treat disorders of the nervous system like brain, meninges, skull base and their blood supply. The neurosurgical conditions include disorders of the brain, spinal cord, vertebral column and peripheral nerve. Spinal disc herniation or a "slipped disc" is a medical condition that affects the spine. The various types of surgeries include the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) and Microdiscectomy.
Brain surgery is also done to treat Spinal stenosis Spinal stenosis. This ia a medical condition in which the spinal canal becomes narrow and therefore, compresses the spinal cord and nerves. This condition is often caused by spinal disc herniation, osteoporosis or a tumour. Other conditions treated by Brain surgery are Hydrocephalus and Head trauma. Hydrocephalus occurs when there is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles or cavities of the brain. A head trauma includes brain hemorrhages, skull fractures and such other conditions. A brain tumor is also treated with Brain surgery. This intracranial tumor is created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division. Tumors of the spine, spinal cord and peripheral nerves are also treate by this method. Another cerebrovascular disorder, Cerebral aneurysm or brain aneurysm, which causes a dilation of the blood vessel is often treated by surgical methods. Other conditions treated by brain surgery are hemorrhagic stroke, pharmacologically resistant epilepsy, some movement disorders, intractable pain of cancer, malformations of the nervous system, carotid artery stenosis and vascular malformations of the brain and spinal cord like arteriovenous malformations, venous angiomas, cavernous angiomas, capillary telangectasias. Other conditions also include peripheral neuropathies such as Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and ulnar neuropathy, Moyamoya disease and congenital malformations of the nervous system.
Brain surgery is the oldest among the practiced medical arts. There is ample evidence of brain surgery in the older times. dating back to the Neolithic (late Stone Age) period, some unearthed remains of successful brain operations and surgical implements have been found in France. pre-historic evidence of brain surgery can be traced during the Pre-Incan civilization which used brain surgery as an extensive practicearcheologic evidences also reveal that brain surgery was used extensively in Paracas, Peru and a desert strip south of Lima. It was often used for spiritual and magical reasons among kings, priests and the nobility. In Africa, the evidence of brain surgery was traced in as early as 3,000 B.C.
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