Mood disorders are beyond usual mood fluctuations from sadness to elation and result in morbidity and mortality. This section covers four mood disorders. These are major depressive disorder (or unipolar major depression), bipolar disorder, dysthymia, and cyclothymia.
Mood disorders are among the top ten causes of disability worldwide. Unipolar major depression stands first, and bipolar disorder too is in the top 10. In coping with the depressed individual, parents, spouses, children, siblings, and friends face anger, guilt, financial hardship and sometimes physical abuse.
Mood disorders is one of the grave medical and psychiatric conditions.
Women aged 18 to 45 comprise the majority of persons with major depression
Suicide most often results in major depressive disorders and accounts for some 20-35 percent of all suicide deaths. In the US, women attempt suicide four times as often as men and men succeed with suicide four times as often as women. Mood disorders often coexist with more mental and somatic disorders. Depressed persons have a higher degree (65 - 71 per cent) to have any of eight common chronic medical conditions .
Suicidal thoughts and psychotic symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations virtually always signify a pathological state.
The sure fire symptoms of major depressive disorder are depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure.
Dysthymia is a chronic depression and its diagnosis as dysthymia is best left to the medical professionals.
Another common mood disorder is bipolar disorder is recurrent mood disorder with one or many episodes of mania or mixed episodes of mania and depression. Bipolar disorder7 is different from major depressive disorder in one respect which is that there are manic or hypomanic episodes. Bipolar disorder is also known as manic depression or bipolar affective disorder.
In cyclothymia, there are manic and depressive states, but their intensity nor duration is sufficient to merit a diagnosis of bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. The diagnosis of cyclothymia is correct when there is a history of hypomania, but no earlier episodes of mania or major depression
Mood disorders are sometimes caused by medications or general medical conditions. Classic examples include the depressive syndromes associated with dominant hemispheric strokes, pancreatic cancer (DSM-IV), hypothyroidism and Cushings disease. Among medications associated with depression, oral contraceptives and antihypertensives are most frequent examples. Transient depressive syndromes are also common during withdrawal from alcohol and other drugs of abuse. Mood disorders due to known physiological or medical causes may account for as many as 5 - 15 per cent of all treated cases. They often are not recognized until after all other standard therapies have not worked.
You must have observed that in all the above medical facts on mood disorders, causes have not merited attention. Persons familiar with the conditions are of the view that causes continues to be a large gray area that merits medical discussion. Among causes, genetics and triggers are counted. Triggerscould be stress, conflict, anxiety, financial worries, lack of routine, little night sleep, graveyard shift, alcohol, smoking, poor diet, junk food, lack of exercise, substance abuse, medication abuse, lack of support systems may help in acquiring a mood disorder?