The first cases of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) were reported in 1981. Since then the infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has grown to pandemonic proportions. This has resulted in an estimated 65 million infections and 25 million deaths. In the year 2005 alone the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate estimated 2.8 million deaths from AIDS, 4.1 million were newly infected with HIV and 38.6 million were living with HIV. The disorder continues to disproportionately affect certain geographic regions like sub- Saharan Africa and the Carribean and other sub populations. The current HIV/AIDS prevalence is that HIV is the sixth leading cause of death for Americans between the ages of 25 and 44 (1999). Among African-American women in this age group, HIV infection is the third leading cause of death, and among African- American men, it`s the leading cause of death.
It`s estimated that at least half of all new HIV infections in the U.S. are among people under 25, and the majority of young people are infected sexually. Thus, prevention is still vital to eliminate infection. The high HIV/AIDS prevalence in Sub Sahara Africa is such that it is home to the 64% of the world population living with HIV. Transmission here is primarily through heterosexual contact and more women are HIV infected than men. The HIV/AIDS prevalence in Asia has a lower adult HIV/AIDS prevalence than in countries in Sub Saharan Africa. The risk factors here are mainly attributed to various high risk behaviours like unprotected sexual intercourse with sex workers,Injection Drug Users or IDUs, Men who have sex with men or MSM.
HIV/AIDS prevalence in Americas is reported mostly among MSM, IDus and sex workers. Brazil is the second most populous country in the Americas after the United States. Its adult prevalence is 0.5% and has approximately 30% of the population living with HIV in South and Central America and the Carribean. The recent HIV/AIDS prevalence in the United States, suggests a resurgence of HIV transmission among MSM; during 2001--2004, an estimated 44% of new HIV infections were in MSM, and 17% were in IDUs (6). In addition, blacks and Hispanics together account for 69% of all reported HIV/AIDS cases. In the United States, 55% of persons in need of ART received it in 2005.
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